Until World War I, coast artillery meant seacoast artillery; the World War brought additional functions, especially antiaircraft artillery. Reading: Civil War Cavalry & Artillery Sabers (Swords) (Hardcover). Battery I had a typical strength of anywhere from 95-130 Officers and Men. The 12-pounder field gun appeared in a series of models mirroring the 6-pounder, but in far less numbers. A Confederate battery was a bit smaller usually numbering only four cannons. men, 70+ horses Ulman's Independent Battery, Pennsylvania Light Artillery Organized at Harrisburg February 14, 1862. Six-pounder bronze guns could be rifled to fire the projectiles invented by Charles Tillinghast James. After reorganizing the Army of Northern Virginia into two corps led by James Longstreet and "Stonewall" Jackson following the Seven Days Battles, Lee assigned each corps two reserve artillery battalions in addition to the individual batteries assigned to each infantry brigade. Field artillery in the American Civil War refers to the important artillery weapons, equipment, and practices used by the Artillery branch to support the infantry and cavalry forces in the field. Cast iron with no explosive. It is so rare that most scholars in … The Confederacy had to rely to a significant extent on captured Union artillery pieces (either on the battlefield or by capturing armories, such as Harpers Ferry); it is estimated that two-thirds of all Confederate field artillery was captured from the Union. Weapons and Characteristics Union and Confederate Artillery & Cannon: From Organization Confederate Artillery Organizations: An Alphabetical Listing of the Officers and Batteries of the Confederacy, 1861–1865 is a remarkable, immensely useful, and exceedingly rare book containing the names of the officers and every Confederate artillery unit. pages contain one to three images of each size and type of projectile of that type. The effect was analogous to a weaker version of canister. The unit was formed by Edward P. Byrne, a native Kentuckian living in Washington … There were two general types of artillery weapons used during the Civil War: smoothbores and rifles. This was a matter of necessity, because guns were always in short supply. The principal guns widely used in the field are listed in the following table. google_ad_slot = "1727731801"; The basic unit contained 3 or 4 Batteries of Artillery; it was called a Battalion in the South and a Brigade in the North (same unit, just a … The smoothbore artillery was also categorized by the bore dimensions, based on the rough weight of the solid shot projectile fired from the weapon. The limber was a two-wheeled carriage that carried an ammunition chest. What impact did artillery … "[26] James rifles were an early solution to the need for rifled artillery at the start of the war. the diverse and confused world of American Civil War field guns...detailed photos and illustrations. They were beautiful, perfectly plain, tapering gracefully from muzzle to "reinforce" or "butt," without rings, or ornaments of any kind. A small quantity of 12-pounder field guns were rifled early in the war, but these were more experimental weapons, and no field service is recorded.[22]. This title guides the reader through the life and experiences of the Confederate Michigan Artillery, 13th Independent Battery, 1864-1865 [SEE: Michigan Light Artillery 13th Independent. At least one Federal battery, the 13th Indiana, took the 12-pounder field gun into service early in the war. More accurate than shell or spherical case with a longer range. [37], Ammunition came in wide varieties, designed to attack specific targets. The general form of each ", 1857 Model Napoleon •Fires 12 lb. Sponsored Content. Battalion and sizes of Civil War cannon, but there were two basic types--smoothbore and rifled. Recommended Reading: The 1864 Field Artillery Tactics: Instruction Parrotts were manufactured with a combination of cast iron and wrought iron.   Each man in a battery had multiple duties he had to perform on a daily basis. Unassigned Pennsylvania Artillery "Compendium of the War of the Rebellion" by Frederick H Shot Another disadvantage was the quality of ammunition as the fuses needed for detonating shells and cases were frequently inaccurate, causing premature or delayed explosions. important extra feature is that it also includes all sabers from the prewar period, right back to 1833. The start of the Civil War sent both sides into high gear as they devised and plotted with metal and iron to make cannons of every imaginable variety. Field artillery in the American Civil War were cannon that could be moved around the battlefield or could travel with an army unit. Piece most important sword book written in decades, and is lavishly illustrated with 1,400 photographs, 60 of them in color. This guide provides the most thorough explanation of how Civil War artillery operated in the field; definitions of all the [9], A Confederate cannoneer remembered, "Our guns were 12 pound brass Napoleons, smooth bore, but accounted the best gun for all round field service then made. The term "horse artillery" refers to the faster moving artillery batteries that typically supported cavalry regiments. Cooper's Battery B, 1st PA Light Artillery. For smoothbores, the projectile was referred to as "spherical shell". Ezra E. Stickley, Company A, 5th Virginia The Civil War is many times referred to as the first "modern" war, one in which the armies were broken into specialized arms. There were two general types of artillery weapons used during the Civil War: smoothbores and rifles. Hollow shell with powder and 40-80 musket The gun and limber were pulled by a team of 6 horses.Each gun also had a caisson which held additional ammunition and supplies, the caisson was also pulled by a team of 6 horses. chapter will introduce the reader to Civil War artillery in sufficient detail to provide an understanding of its material and organizational capabilities. However, large caliber shells, such as the 32-pounder spherical, were effective at breaching entrenchments.[44]. Although some older iron weapons were pressed into service, and the Confederacy produced some new iron field guns, most of those used on the battlefields were of bronze construction. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Organization A Civil War battery consisted of six cannons with over 100 men. The Guns of Gettysburg — Eight Things You Didn’t Know About Artillery at the Civil War’s Most Famous Battle. [13], Finally, the lesser-known but highly mobile 12-pounder mountain Howitzer saw service with infantry and cavalry forces in the rugged western theaters and prairies, and continued in service during the Indian Wars. Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the U.S. Confederate States presidential election of 1861, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Field_artillery_in_the_American_Civil_War&oldid=993837977, Articles lacking in-text citations from November 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 19:23. Upon exiting the muzzle, the container disintegrated, and the balls fanned out as the equivalent of a very large shotgun blast. 1841 Model Gun•Fires 6 lb. The limber contained a limber chest which held ammunition. The Parrott rifle invented by Robert P. Parrott, was manufactured in different sizes, from the 10-pounder Parrott rifle up to the rare 300-pounder. Cannon Crew During the Civil War, Henry Hunt’s artillery knowledge and skill made major impact on many battlefields – Malvern Hill, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, and Petersburg, just to name a few. made easy targets as they marched across low-lying, open fields nearby. It cost about $500. Until 1864, Union batteries used only the 2.9 inch Parrott, but they also employed 3" Ordnance rifles. Coupled to the 6-pounder field gun in allocations of the pre-war Army, the M1841 12-pounder howitzer was represented by Models of 1835, 1838 and 1841. Field artillery could only fight unlimbered (disconnected from the cart and horses that pulled it).   In either case, the combination provided the equivalent of a four-wheeled vehicle, which distributed the load over two axles but was easier to maneuver on rough terrain than a four-wheeled wagon. Several hundred were used by the armies of both sides in 1861. (Sources and related reading listed below.). Shells contain an explosive charge and were designed to burst into fragments in the midst of enemy troops. (function() { It carried two ammunition chests and a spare wheel. The rolling hills of Sharpsburg provided a highly effective setting for the Photographs include hundreds of close-ups showing Despite its effectiveness, many artillerymen were reluctant to use solid shot, preferring the explosive types of ordnance. Artillery played an important role in many battles during the Civil War, and reflected how advances in technology could fundamentally change how wars and battles are fought. Nor does it include smaller, specialized artillery … of Mexican War, but considered obsolete by Civil War•Weight: 1,784 pounds•Range: up to 1,523 yards•Approximate Romeo H. Start, during the closing months of 1863. This huge resource is easily the Confederate Artilleryman 1861-65 (Warrior). Battery "G", 2nd Illinois Light Artillery Regiment was an artillery battery from Illinois that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Recommended Reading: 8. Smoothbore artillery refers to weapons that are not rifled. for studying artillery warfare. Robinson's Battery, Michigan Artillery, Battle Creek, Michigan. Every make and every The chambers are ignited by use of a percussion cap on a nipple. Confederate Napoleons were produced in at least six variations, most of which had straight muzzles, but at least eight catalogued survivors of 133 identified have muzzle swells. reference work for civil war cannon used in the field. Cannoneer 5 runs the ammunition from the limber to the gun. pages) (University of North Texas Press). artwork. projectiles•Workhorse Loud Louis Napoleon III •Weight: 2,355 pounds •Range: up to 1,619 yards •Approximate number at Antietam:Confederate: With a light weight and respectable projectile payload, the 12-pounder was only cycled out of the main field army inventories as production and availability of the 12-pounder "Napoleon" rose, and would see action in the Confederate armies up to the very end. ARTILLERY BATTERY The unit of organization for the field artillery was the battery. and Artillery Organizations American Civil War Infantry Organization The large number of horses posed a logistical challenge for the artillery, because they had to be fed, maintained, and replaced when worn out or injured. //-->. Civil War Artillery at Gettysburg, Da Capo Press, 2002; Dean Thomas, Cannons, An Introduction to Civil War Artillery, Thomas Reynolds' Battery L 1st New York Light Artillery is chartered by the NY State Board of Education with the stated purpose and objectives to inform, instruct and educate the public as to the life and trials of a Civil War Artillery soldier during the 1860s. Unusual or out-of-favor types migrated to the Western theaters. It was used in the siege of Petersburg, Va., and was later captured on 27 April 1865, at Danville, Va., by Union troops and sent to the Ordnance Laboratory, United States Military Academy, West Point, N.Y. In addition to these vehicles, there were also battery supply wagons and portable forges that were used to service the guns. the diverse and confused world of American Civil War field guns...detailed photos and illustrations. Each photo Photographs include hundreds of close-ups showing The major shortcoming of these heavy field guns was mobility, as they required eight-horse teams as opposed to the six-horse teams of the lighter guns. At the start of the War, each side assigned one Battery attached to each Infantry Brigade, plus an Artillery reserve under the Army Commander. About the Book. During the American Civil War (1861-1865), the army, both Union and Confederate, consisted principally of artillery, infantry, and cavalry.Although organization and structure for the opposing armies was nearly identical, the sizes of the units within the organization varied. Commanded by Lieutenant2 guns (+ limbers and caissons)16 men and Each gun, or "piece", was operated by a gun crew of eight, plus four additional men to handle the horses and equipment. When the Civil Following this, plans were made to re-bore all of the 2.9" Parrotts to 3" to standardize ammunition, and no further 2.9" Parrotts were to be produced. [41] A primary weakness of shell was that it typically produced only a few large fragments, the count increasing with caliber of the shell. Artillery Organization. We are proud of them and felt towards them almost as if they were human..."[10], Howitzers were short-barreled guns that were optimized for firing explosive shells in a high trajectory, but also for spherical case shot and canister, over a shorter range than the guns. in the service." _gaq.push(['_setAllowLinker', true]); Insights The limber (or caisson) along with the team of six horses would be moved to a safe area nearby. ga.src = ('https:' == document.location.protocol ? The Whitworth, designed by Joseph Whitworth and manufactured in England, was a rare gun during the war but an interesting precursor to modern artillery in that it was loaded from the breech and had exceptional accuracy over great distance. The artillery was usually organized by regiments as well, except that each company was called a battery (see American Civil War Artillery Organization).A battery consisted of over 100 soldiers, armed with six cannon per battery. Several photos not seen. The Third Vermont Battery Light Artillery, "Start's Battery," served in the Army of the Potomac. Site search The cannon used at the Battle of Antietam The officers in charge of the reserve battalions were all drawn from Longstreet's command, which displeased Jackson as he had not been allowed to select his own men for the corps artillery reserve, however he accepted it without complaining. For more devastating effect, Education Website number at Antietam:Confederate: 36, Union: 42, "The air around us seemed to be alive with shot and shell from the enemy's "[40] Few, if any, rounds were issued to field artillery batteries. A smoothbore cannon barrel is just like Yet, the artillerist quickly earned the respect of their fellow soldiers, and a reputation [32], Whitworth also designed a 3-pounder breechloading rifle which saw limited use in the war. Smoothbores included howitzers and guns. Confederate batteries usually consisted of four guns, in contrast to the Union's six. air burst terrorized troops and horses. Confederate Artillery Organizations: An Alphabetical Listing of the Officers and Batteries of the Confederacy, 1861 1865 is a remarkable, immensely useful, and exceedingly rare book containing the names of the officers and every Confederate artillery unit. A rifled cannon was more accurate and had a greater It does not include siege artillery, use of artillery in fixed fortifications, or coastal or naval artillery. [42][43], Spherical shell used time fuses, while rifled shell could use timed fuse or be detonated on impact by percussion fuse. Often overlooked or just briefly mentioned in many military studies, Hunt fought to save the Union and his efforts ensured the success of Union artillery … Invented by John Griffen, it was extremely durable, with the barrel made of wrought iron, primarily produced by the Phoenix Iron Company of Phoenixville, Pennsylvania. 39, No. The cap is struck by a huge spring actuated striker built into the flat strip that supports the chambers at their aft end. Loomis' Battery, 1st Michigan Light Artillery. Civil War Heavy Explosive Ordnance: A Guide to Large Artillery Projectiles, Torpedoes, and Mines (Hardcover) (537 By the time of the Civil War, grapeshot was obsolete and largely replaced by canister. Second organization: The 2d Excelsior Battery, recruited and organized for the Excelsior Brigade, under authority of the War Department, dated October 1, 1861, in New York city, and there mustered in the United States service for three years, April 9, 1862, was designated by the State authorities the 10th Battery. Civil War Army Organization. The numerous ridges made excellent locations for cannon. details of their fundamental statistics. number at Antietam: Confederate: 40, Union: 9. is accompanied by a detailed description. The organization was commanded by a captain with first and second lieutenants as section chiefs and chief of caissons. War began in 1861, comparatively few Southern men volunteered for service in the artillery: most preferred the easily accessible We are a non-profit organization who's purpose is to honor those veterans who fought and died to preserve the Union. Field Artillery in the Civil War. Nothing else approaches its structured grouping and organization of Fused; exploded into 5-12 large pieces. Chapters Two and Three examine how the Union artillery was employed at Gettysburg. There are few cases on record of the tube fracturing or bursting, a problem that plagued other rifles made of brittle cast iron. During the Battle of Atlanta, a Confederate gunner was quoted: "The Yankee three-inch rifle was a dead shot at any distance under a mile. Description: It was originally published as simply Confederate Artillery … FLYING ARTILLERY: Occasionally used during the Civil War, this unofficial and rather romantic term was popularized during the Mexican War and also means "light" or "horse" artillery. Artillery Engagement, Artillery Duel, Artillery Experience, Artillery Exchange, Artillery Battle, Gettysburg Artillery, Cannon, January 31, 1862, it was transferred to the 3d Artillery, as Battery F of the same. A truly groundbreaking work. The first half or PART ONE is devoted to chapters Cannon Classification, Types Of Cannon, Foundries, Organization of the Field Battery, Firing a Civil War Cannon, Ammunition, and Artillery At Shiloh, with an appendix of tables on Ranges, Markings, and Inspectors. Further classifications of the weapons were made based on the type of metal used, typically bronze or iron (cast or wrought), although some examples of steel were produced. A grapeshot round (or "stand") used in a 12-pounder Napoleon contained 9 balls, contrasted against the 27 smaller balls in a canister round. With case the lethality of the balls and fragments came from the velocity of the projectile itself – the small burst charge only fragmented the case and dispersed the shrapnel. Field howitzer calibers used in the Civil War were 12-pounder (4.62 inch bore), 24-pounder (5.82 inch bore), and 32-pounder (6.41 inch bore). Cannoneer, Canister, Grapeshot, etc. Try our internal search engine, type, for examples: Artillery, Artillerist, An engineering magazine wrote in 1864 that, "At 1600 yards [1500 m] the Whitworth gun fired 10 shots with a lateral deviation of only 5 inches." Infantry Civil War Army: The Confederate and Union Infantry, Cavalry, was a separate, specialized branch of the army that supported the Infantry. Its use at this time showed the serious effort of the Confederacy to develop a weapon capable of sustained fire. ", "The smoke rolled backward to the mountains... the destructive shot and shell were falling, it would Reynolds' Battery L 1st New York Light Artillery is chartered by the NY State Board of Education with the stated purpose and objectives to inform, instruct and educate the public as to the life and trials of a Civil War Artillery soldier is accompanied by a detailed description. Perhaps no greater sign of this was Brigadier General William Pendleton’s elevation to command the Army of Northern Virginia’s artillery on the basis of his friendship with Robert E. Lee, rather than any demonstrated competence. and Pictures, Best viewed with Internet Explorer or Google Chrome,