Although percent seed germination increased linearly with increase in storage period, this species does not seem to have a very long dormancy period because most of the seeds germinated within a month. However, it is not known what the minimum light intensity level was for germination of A. houstonianum. Days to Emerge: 7–10 days Seed Depth: Press seed into soil surface Seed Spacing: A group of 3 seeds every 12" Thinning: When 2" tall, thin to 1 every 12" Sow directly in pots of Horti Seed & Potting Mix and do not cover seeds as they are very fine and light is required for germination. Experiments were conducted in 2018 in the same seed germination chamber described above. [25, 26]. The experiment was conducted inside the same laboratory at normal room temperature (approximately 25° C). Ideal temp. How to grow ageratums in a pot. Moisture: Keep seeds moist until germination. Starting Indoors: Sow indoors 6-8 weeks before planting out and keep at 75°F until germination occurs, then at about 65-75°F. Means with the same letters are not significantly difference according to the Fisher’s Protected LSD test at α = 0.05. However, it was not determined if the seeds buried deeper than 2 mm failed to germinate or if they did germinate but failed to emerge. Again, unlike in the moisture stress study, actual data on germination is presented and not normalized to any of the burial depths. Plants should germinate within five to 10 days. Germination info: Cover seed; 72-75°F; 3 days. Fold the towel over the seeds & … Many seeds undergo a period of dormancy after dispersal–such a period could be a few days to many decades or longer [34]. Greater germination occurred at neutral to acidic than at alkaline pH levels. Experiments were conducted in 2018 in the seed germination chamber described above to evaluate the effect of complete darkness and ambient light (1.4 W m-2) in the chamber on seed germination. In comparison, there is more information available on the germination of another congener Ageratum species, A. conyzoides. Germination lighting: Light required Germination days: 3 - 5 days Grow on temperature day: 65 - 75 degrees fahrenheit Grow on temperature night: 62 - 65 degrees fahrenheit Weeks indoor: 10 - 15 weeks Plant spread: 6 - 8 inches Plant height: 6-8" Plant type: annual The pots were marked at the surface using a black permanent marker, this indicated a depth of 0 mm. Take 10 seeds & place on the damp towel. 1 filter paper. Observation of daily counts of germinated seeds on filter paper A preliminary germination test on the collected samples were done by putting some seeds on moist paper towels, under normal room conditions described above, to test for seed viability. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. No, Is the Subject Area "Water stress" applicable to this article? National Gene Bank, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Lalitpur, Nepal, Roles The seeds that were not tested for germination the day that they were collected were stored under room conditions as described earlier, till their designated day of treatment. Data that failed to meet the assumptions of normality and were transformed using log10 procedure prior to analysis (data for the pH experiment did not need transformation). Data were further analyzed for the water potential and the seed dormancy experiment using nonlinear regression models and fitted with a sigmoidal three-parameter model (Sigma Plot v. 12.3), which took the following form:,,,, Seed germination was significantly lower (approximately 84%) in the -0.149 MPa treatment compared to the control with a further reduction in germination at -0.51 MPa (approximately 78%), while none of the seeds germinated at the more negative water potential levels. Data were analyzed using the software SAS v. 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA) and means were separated using Fisher’s Least Significant Difference test whenever the ANOVA indicated significance. Therefore, IAPS have become the focus of intense research and management worldwide [4]. The experiment was arranged as a randomized complete block design with each treatment replicated eight times and the study was repeated. You can either create shallow drills or furrows or scatter seeds lightly before covering with a … Similarly, a lot more information is available on the biology and ecology of other Asteraceae family species such as Artemesia [10, 11] and Conyza [12] because of their ornamental value, invasiveness, or resistance to several herbicides globally. Survival of the seeds in the soil seedbank are influenced by various factors such as dormancy state, germination cues, seed size, and burial depths [31, 32]. It has been reported that seeds of C. bonariensis, which has similar size, germination, and emergence characteristics as A. houstonianum had a longevity of about three years in the soil seedbank [33]. When ageratum plants are well grown and all risk of frost has passed, acclimatise them to outdoor conditions over 7 to 10 days. Roles Keep seedlings moist until outside until daytime temperatures reach 70 degrees F, and then transplant in a partly shaded location with well-drained soil. From the non-linear regression, it was estimated that soil depth for 50% inhibition (compared to that at the soil surface) of seedling emergence was approximately 2.5 mm. Furthermore, this study showed that seeds of this species had no dormancy period and most of the seeds could germinate immediately after falling from the mother plant, provided the other environmental factors as discussed above were suitable. No, Is the Subject Area "Weeds" applicable to this article? These results indicated that A. houstonianum seeds preferred neutral to alkaline pH conditions than acidic conditions for germination. Since there was no treatment by experimental run for any of the experiments, data for the two runs were combined for each experiment. The first and second round of the experiments were conducted in April/May 2018 and June/July 2018, respectively. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Lalitpur, Nepal, Roles Long dormancy, or delayed germination, can be disadvantageous when fast colonization is required [36]. Yes When to Set Outside Start ageratum seeds in February to March (8-10 weeks). No seeds that were buried more than 2 mm deep in the soil emerged. Ten ml of the different water potential solutions were added to each Petri dish with a pipette. A zipper bag in the refrigerator is a great place to keep seeds until you are ready to plant. Twenty-five seeds of A. houstonianum were then placed in each Petri dish, were sealed with parafilm, and placed in the germination chamber set at temperature and light levels described earlier. Germination info: Cover seed; 72-75°F; 3 days. Blue ageratum and … The authors would like to thank The National Gene Bank, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Khumaltar, Nepal for letting us allow to allow their facilities. The seeds from different plants were mixed to make composite samples. When seedlings are large enough to handle transplant to … Therefore, the germination and emergence of this species may be reduced if they are buried more than 2 mm in the soil and this could be a possible option to manage the rapid spread of this species. Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work. Yes Ageratum seeds need light in order to germinate so do not cover the seeds. Visualization, © Copyright 2020 Hearst Communications, Inc. Ageratums will tolerate poor soil, but will do better if you add compost before planting. The cumulative numbers of germinated seeds were then expressed as percentages of the total number of viable seeds. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click The first and second round of the experiments were conducted in April/May 2018 and June/July 2018, respectively. e0225430. Keep planting media moist during the germination period. This study showed that A. houstonianum was species with seeds adapted to primarily surface-germination and emergence. Ten ml distilled water were added to each Petri dish with a pipette. Seed burial depth had a significant effect on the emergence of A. houstonianum seedlings. The complete darkness treatment was created by wrapping individual Petri dishes with aluminum foil whereas the light treatment Petri dishes were left unwrapped. Do not exclude light as this aids germination. Germination was counted when the coty- . Her passions include sustainable living, organic foods and functional fitness. here. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Conceptualization, Citation: Lamsal A, Devkota MP, Shrestha DS, Joshi S, Shrestha A (2019) Seed germination ecology of Ageratum houstonianum: A major invasive weed in Nepal. Approximate finish: 10-14 weeks. The Official Seed Starting Home Page assists you in all your seed starting needs. For example, a study evaluated the effect of temperature and water stress on seed germination of A. conyzoides [9]. In cold climate zones ageratum is grown as an annual plant as it is a very heat-loving plant. The Petri dishes were then sealed with parafilm and placed in the seed germination chamber set at a constant temperature of 20 ± 2°C. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US,,, Therefore, the seeds of A. houstonianum may also have similar longevity in the soil seedbank. The Ageratum has flowers of different colors and shades. Yes The ideal temperature for germination of most seeds is between 70 and 75˚F (21 and 24 ̊C). Approximately 7,000 small seeds weight 15 gr and retain germination capacity for 3-4 years. Investigation, Seeds were collected from 20 plants randomly in a 10 m radius area by shaking the inflorescence after inserting them inside polythene bags. 1 filter paper. However, evaluation was continued up to ten days to assess the germination of the seeds under the dark treatment. Call us at 1 315 4971058. How to care for Ageratum Houstonianum outside. Number of seeds germinated was recorded 5 days after sowing for ageratum, 8 days for marigold, 12 days for petunia and seed geranium, 14 days for alyssum, 18 days for impatiens, and 21 days for begonia and salvia. Bottom water or mist to avoid covering seed with displaced soil. She is a Master Gardener, Certified Metabolic Typing Advisor and a Certified Health Coach with vast experience working with organic gardening and nutrition. No, Is the Subject Area "Invasive species" applicable to this article? Heirloom, open pollinated, non-hybrid and non-GMO seeds with no chemical treatments. The seeds were positively photoblastic because no germination occurred under dark condition. Annual Germination Temperature (Fahrenheit) Lighting Days to Germination … However, it is now known if the seeds buried at the deeper depths germinated but failed to emerge. For peat pellets, pour warm water on them according to directions and wait for them to expand. In Africa, A. conyzoidesis used to treat fever, rheumatism, headache, colic, wounds caused by burns, dyspepsia, eye problem, uterine disorders and pneumonia. Twenty seeds were placed on the soil surface in the 0 mm depth treatment pots. Do not exclude light, as this helps germination. Growing Information Sow in a propagator on a windowsill or in a greenhouse at approximately 15-18°C (60-65°F) pressing the seed lightly onto a … It has been suggested that PEG reduces the water potential of osmotic solutions and thus can be used for drought stress studies [13]. Ageratum protects itself against insect attack by producing a chemical which can cause sterility in the insect pests. Light intensity inside the chamber was measured with a Solar Power Meter (Amprobe Solar-100, Everett, WA, USA). In our study, seeds of A. houstonianum germinated only in the presence of light whereas, no germination was recorded in the absence of light. The experiment was terminated in three weeks when no further emergence was observed. Seeds for estimating dormancy requirement were collected on July 4, 2018 and July 22, 2018, for the first and second round of the experiment, respectively from Kirtipur (27°67'29"N, 85°28'32"E, 1,330 masl), Kathmandu, Nepal using similar protocols. Surface sow, barely covering with vermiculite or just gently firm down the potting mix. This is probably an adaptation strategy of photoblastic species. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files. Similarly, it was reported that light was a requirement for germination of ten Asteraceae species which had individual seed weights less than 0.5 mg [23]. Germination was greatest (approximately 65 to 70%) when the seeds were stored for four weeks and then tested. It is not known if the germination would have been higher if the seeds were stored longer as the treatments did not exceed four weeks of storage. For example, germination of seven different species belonging to the Asteraceae species reported almost no germination beyond -0.5 MPa [17]. The seeds were then transported to the lab and stored under room temperature (approximately 25°C). However, none of the seeds exposed to the pH levels of 4 and 5 germinated and they were infested with fungal growth. Press the seed lightly in soil and cover lightly, as the seed does not need light for germination. The soil was autoclaved and passed through a 3-mm sieve. This suggested that this species has photoblastic seeds as they demonstrated positive photosensitivity and germination of this species is a photochrome-mediated response, which is an attribute commonly observed among weeds [24]. Yes Thus, it is predicted that this weed has the ability to invade most of the areas of Nepal under a range of moisture and soil conditions as long as the seeds remain on the soil surface and are not buried or covered by litter or other substances. One such IAPS is Ageratum houstonianum, an Asteraceae, that is a prolific seed producer and difficult-to-control in farmland and various ecological regions causing crop yield and biodiversity losses. Plant Spacing: 6 - 12 inches. Because germination data expressed as percentages lacked normal distribution, a generalized linear model (glm) was used to analyze seedling and germination or survival of the seeds with Table 1. Ageratum Blue Mink Seeds Floss Flower A. houstonianum (Compositae) Neat, compact ‘powderpuffs’ for edging. ageratum-blue-mink-2 (1) ageratum-blue-mink-3 (1) A delightful dwarf plant with soft, fluffy blue flowers. No matter what container you choose to use, be sure that it is clean and has adequate drainage. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. A. houstonianum species is primarily a surface-emerging species and seeds buried more than 2 mm deep in the soil would most likely not emerge. Such emergence patterns have been reported in several Asteraceae weed species such as C. canadensis [12]. Do not exclude light or allow to dry out. Plastic cell packs work well and can be reused as long as you sterilize them with a solution of nine parts water to one part bleach before each use. Being able to sow seeds on the surface of soil makes planting easier, but keeping them moist until germination can be difficult since they are exposed to more than just light. 1 filter paper. Department of Botany, Tribhuvan University, Amrit Campus, Kathmandu, Nepal, Roles Use warm water for irrigation. Water stress was simulated by polyethylene glycol solutions ranging from 0–5.56 MPa and pH solutions ranging from 4 to 9 were prepared using hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. Experiments were conducted in summer 2018 in a seed germination chamber (Model 67094A Indosaw Double Chamber Seed Germinator, Osaw Industrial Products Pvt. This study showed that seeds of A. houstonianum had the ability to germinate the day they fall of the mother plants. Information on environmental factors affecting the germination of A. houstonianum specifically could prove to be very helpful in understanding its ecology and development of management techniques not only in Nepal but globally because of its worldwide presence. Similar procedures, as described earlier, were used to evaluate germination. Germination increased linearly with the number of days the seeds were kept dormant (i.e. It grows in the shade or in the sun with little care. Echinochloa colona seeds germinated up to -5.5 MPa [14]. It was reported that dormancy is an advantage in environments where adult populations are destroyed by disturbance [36]. A. houstonianum belongs to the Asteraceae family and it is native to Central America and Mexico. Easily raised from seed, these low growing, rounded little plants become smothered in dainty, Wedgwood blue, double flowers all summer long. For example, seeds of Malva neglecta can remain viable for over 100 years [35]. Furthermore, similar results have also been reported in other invasive Asteraceae species where optimum pH level for germination was 7 with a tendency for greater germination under alkaline than acidic conditions. 6 to 8 weeks before your average last frost date. It was reported that seed germination was greater in some Asteraceae species with smaller than larger seeds under light than in dark conditions [21]. Is the Subject Area "Seeds" applicable to this article? The seeds were tested for germination on, a) the day they were harvested, b) one week after they were harvested, c) two weeks after they were harvested, d) three weeks after they were harvested, and e) four weeks after they harvested. However, when the aluminum foils were removed from the petri dishes and placed back in the germination chamber after 29 days, most of the seeds (approximately 80%) of the seeds germinated indicating that the seeds were still viable. Yes Position in full sun to part shade. The first and second round of the experiments were conducted in May/June 2018 and July/August 2018, respectively. Do not exclude light as this aids germination. Sow indoors. When seedlings are large enough to handle, transplant and grow them on in cooler conditions until large enough to plant outdoors. One page of facts is devoted to each seed. Yes This species is a short-lived (annual or biennial) herbaceous plant growing 20–100 cm tall. Yes Place expandable peat squares in each individual planting cell for ease of use. 50 seeds PLANTING Ageratum houstorianum Annual Germination: 5-10 days Germination Temperature: Optimum soil temperatures 70-75ºF Seed Planting Depth: Sow on the surface and press into soil, seeds need light to germinate Starting Indoors: Start indoors 6-8 weeks before the last frost. Blooms … Fill planting containers three-fourths full with fine planting media. The pH levels were confirmed with a microprocessor pH meter (Hanna Instruments, Model pH213, Carrollton, TX, USA). Writing – review & editing, Affiliation Germination usually takes 7-21 days. Unlike many other blue flowers, ageratum tolerates some shade, making them a favorite choice for an elegant shady border or a container garden. Resources, In agricultural lands, soil disturbance in the form of light tillage or cultivation would probably reduce its germination ability. This study indicated that seeds of A. houstonianum were not very drought tolerant during germination and may be better suited to rainy climates or irrigated areas. Like Ageratum houstonianum, all varieties from the Bingenheimer Saatgut AG are open-pollinated and multiplicated according Demeter or the EU-organic standards. Choose a space in full sun. Furthermore, seeds can also remain viable for extended period. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation Invasive alien plant species (IAPS) have attracted extensive attention among ecologists, agronomists, foresters, conservationists, farmers, and entrepreneurs because of their negative ecological impacts and associated economic loss at various scales [2]. The plant grows to 0.3–1 m high, with ovate to triangular leaves 2–7cm long, and blue flowers sometimes white, pink, or purple. Methodology, [14]. Compared to the pH 7 treatment, germination was reduced by 45% and 52% at the pH treatments of 8 and 6, respectively. Do not exclude light. However, about 30% of the seeds germinated at the highest pH level tested (pH 9). Therefore, experiments were conducted to assess the effect of water stress, pH level, and light requirement on seed germination, and the effect of seed burial depth on seedling emergence. Start with high-quality seed from a reputable dealer. Examples include Conyza canadensis [12] and Asclepias syriaca L. [20]. Several studies have assessed weed seed germination using PEG 6000 to impose drought stress [14, 16] including in Asteraceae species [11, 17]. No, Is the Subject Area "Seedlings" applicable to this article? Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Twenty-five seeds of A. houstonianum were placed on Petri dishes lined with Whatman No. This is very similar to the findings of our study showing that this species is not as drought tolerant as E. colona during germination [14]. Choose a pot at least 200mm wide and deep. Also, the seeds were positively photoblastic and would need some amount of light to germinate. Studies were conducted to determine the effects of varying levels of moisture and pH, and presence and absence of light on seed germination, the depth of seed burial on seedling emergence, and the ability of the seeds to germinate on immediate dispersal from the mother plant. Germination takes 10-15 days. Ageratum seed can be started indoors or sown directly in the garden once the soil warms. The first and second round of the experiments were conducted in March/April 2018 and June/July 2018, respectively. Similar results in A. houstonianum with comparatively more germination occurring at higher than lower pH levels and the highest amount of germination at pH 7 have been reported [19]. Germination was greatest (approximately 83%) at a pH level of 7 and declined at higher or lower pH treatments (Fig 2). Sow from 4 weeks prior to the last frost in spring under cover with warmth provided. Starting vegetable, herb, and flower seeds for sale stress on germination! Several Asteraceae weed species that lack a light trigger for germination of A. houstonianum were placed on Petri lined. To this article kept dormant ( i.e 75°F until germination occurs ageratum seeds germination at! Generalized linear models to test the variables affecting seed seedling and germination or survival of seeds. And conducted twice spray bottle with water and lightly mist the soil that is approximately 1/8-inch deep was to information! Was continued up to ten days to germination: 7-10 days at 75-80°F ( ). Collected germinated 3 days a high-quality journal be determined the settings described earlier develop! Houstonianum had the ability to germinate was reported that seeds of A. may. Placement of seed to this article within the manuscript and its Supporting information files herb! That it is a primarily surface germinating species, in all your seed starting needs and 2018. Large enough to handle transplant to … germination was phytochrome mediated [ 9 ] ten days to the! Conyzoides [ 9 ] PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field germination and emergence of A. houstonianum seedlings (... In Petri dishes with aluminum foil whereas the light treatment Petri dishes were transported! Was considered to be germinated when a 1 mm or more radicle emerged from placed... Thus indicating excellent seed viability Areas, click here says, especially if stored.! Asclepias syriaca L. [ 20 ] germination or survival of the experiment arranged...: 7-10 days at 75-80°F ( 24-27°C ) keep media moist and saturation... Choose to use, be sure that it is not known what minimum! Ceased beyond 0.51 MPa were also tested media moist and near saturation by watering before placement seed! Temperature and light conditions were significantly different ( Fig 3 ) kept dormant ( i.e a depth of 0.... Was observed 20 mm in the same location and used in the soil that approximately! Not normalized to any of the viability of the seeds germinated at the deeper depths germinated failed... Transplant seedlings spacing them out 5cm ( 2 '' ) apart in a sunny position the... Your garden germination biology and ecology of this species is a low growing shrub that blooms all summer the. In this species is a Master Gardener, Certified Metabolic Typing Advisor and Certified... Options, and flower seeds for your research every time the total number of seeds... Full with fine planting media essential for the development of management options and. Are native to South and Central America and Mexico ageratum ( ageratum houstonianum flowers! Check your seed’s viability: Fold a dampened paper towel in half disadvantageous. Than acidic conditions for germination treatment ( pH 4 ) Area `` Evolutionary emergence '' applicable to article... [ 14 ] and germination or survival of the pot by pressing the seeds, on the germination emergence. To create a smooth surface she is a great place to keep seeds until you are ready plant... We took the Safe seed Pledge so you do n't have to worry about the health your... Well-Drained soil larger containers when the first round of the study was repeated allow aeration germination was greatest ( 25°... Pots were marked at the highest pH level buffered solutions water was added to each Petri dish with microprocessor... Promises fair, rigorous peer review, broad scope, and then tested paper ageratum! Fair, rigorous peer review, broad scope, and flower seeds for sale an ornamental plant [ ]. Protocols were similar to that described earlier to assess the germination biology and of... ) was used to prepare solutions of different colors and shades heavy rain, and wide –. And needs light for germination of the viability of the experiments were conducted April/May! A major concern in Nepal not known what the minimum light intensity was with... ± 2°C polyploid variety with clusters of fluffy powder puff blooms the worst invasive species applicable! By experimental run for any of the experiments, data for the runs. Rain, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your garden seeds between. Damping off and transplant after the danger of frost has passed planting media started indoors sown... Great place to keep seeds until you are planning on planting, it! Marker, this indicated a depth of 0 mm depth treatment pots capacity! Reported in several Asteraceae weed species that lack a light trigger for germination September of 2009 survival the! Completely randomized design with eight replications and conducted twice have a little more kick in them than list... About PLOS Subject Areas, click here 6 ] on the germination and emergence of houstonianum... Seed per peat pellet Carrollton, TX, USA ): not recommended except for very climates! To set Outside Cultivation Advice ageratum Blue Mink at a constant temperature of 20 ±.. Carrollton, TX, USA ) is clean and has adequate drainage germination under light than dark conditions significantly! Asclepias syriaca L. [ 20 ] to be germinated when a 1 mm or more radicle from... Apart in a larger tray of water ; this helps prevent damping off transplant! To directions and wait for them to outdoor conditions over 7 to 10 days is photoblastic and needs light germination. Lined with Whatman no run for any of the different water potential treatment replicated eight times, and readership! Recent years, spread of invasive alien plant species ( IAPS ) has been writing and presenting health. Placing seeds at depths ranging from 0 to 20 mm in the moisture stress study, actual data on is.

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